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Useful Linux commands, with no particular order

Check which program is using a particular port

sudo lsof -i:port

Kill a particular PID

sudo kill -9 PID

Check the current folder size

du -hs .

Show filesystem information

df -h


Copying local keys to a remote server

ssh-copy-id user@server

Create a remote tunnel into localhost

ssh -L local-port:localhost:remote-port user@server -N

Note: AllowTcpForwarding and PermitOpen have to be enabled in /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Forward a local port to a remote host (like ngrok)

ssh -N -T -R local-port:localhost:remote-port user@server
  • -N Do not execute a remote command. This is useful for just forwarding ports.
  • -T Disable pseudo-terminal allocation.
  • -R Specifies that connections to the given TCP port or Unix socket on the remote (server) host are to be forwarded to the local side.


scp -r /folder/to/upload user@server:/destination/on/server

tar & untar


tar -czvf file.tar.gz file/or/folder/to/tar/
  • -c create
  • -z gzip
  • -v verbose
  • -f filename


tar -xvf file.tar.gz
  • -x extract
  • -v verbose
  • -f filename

gpg encrypt/decrypt


gpg -c --cipher-algo AES256 file/to/encrypt

You will be asked to enter a password


gpg file/to/decrypt

You will be asked to enter a password

Download an entire website using wget


wget \
     --mirror \ # Makes (among other things) the download recursive.
     --page-requisites \ # Get all assets/elements (CSS/JS/images).
     --adjust-extension \ # Save files with .html on the end.
     --span-hosts \ # Include necessary assets from offsite as well.
     --convert-links \ # Update links to still work in the static version.
     --restrict-file-names=windows \ # Modify filenames to work in Windows as well.
     --domains \ # Do not follow links outside this domain.
     --no-parent \ # Don't follow links outside the directory you pass in. # The URL to download

Create a X.509 sha256 self signed certificate

openssl req \
  -x509 \
  -newkey rsa:4096 \
  -sha256 \
  -keyout mykeyname.key \
  -out mycertname.pem \ 
  -days 365 
  -nodes # only if you need no password
linux.txt · Last modified: 2021/04/15 10:32 by roger